A comparison is the action of comparing two or more things with the purpose of giving possible similarities or differences whether appealing to their physical aspect or to the symbolic or imaginary one. In that way, one can compare two things and highlight their similarities or, differences.
Broadly speaking, we can say that there are 3 types of comparisons words in Spanish, taking into account the relationship established between the two objects compared.
Types of comparison words in Spanish
It seeks to print to one of the referents the properties associated with the other, that is, establish a relationship of similarity or proportionality, among them. For example, when comparing the planet Earth with a baseball, we could refer to shared sphericity.
tan + adjective (adverb) + como
La salsa es tan buena como el queso
(The bsauce is as good as the cheese.)
Este libro es tan malo como el otro
(This book is as bad as the other.)
To compare equality with nouns, you need to use the following formula:
tanto(-a,-os,-as) + noun + como
Carla tiene tantos hijos como Lucía.
(as much money as)
Yo tengo tanto dinero como Bill Gates
(I have as much oney as Bill Gates)
Ella tiene tanta paciencia como mi hermana.
(She has as much patience as my sister)
Tiene tantas plumas como ella.
(as many pens as)
When actions verbs are being compared, use the following formula:
verb + tanto + como
mi hermano corre tanto tu hermano.
(my brother runs as much as your borther)
Rosario limpia tanto como Carolina.
(Rosario cleans as much as Carolina)
One of the terms compared turns out to be less than the other in some sense and the comparison seeks to reinforce that idea. It is typical of comparisons that use the formula “less than …” or “less than …”
menos + adjective + que
Juan es menos guapo que Luis.
(Juan is less handsome than Luis)
menos + adverb + que
Yo conduzco menos rápido que mi esposo.
(I drive less fast than my husband)
menos + noun + que
Yo como menos carne que él.
(I eat less meat than him)
On the contrary, here one of the terms is compared with the other to accentuate its superiority or greatness. He often uses the formula “greater than …” or “more than …”, for example.
más + adjective + que
Lorena es más guapa que Johanna.
(Lorena is more beautiful than Johanna)
más + adverb + que
Ella habla más rápido que yo,
(she speaks faster than me)
más + noun + que
Ella compra más ropa que él.
(she buys more clothes than him)